What are Macronutrients?

October 1, 2019

When we consider the nutritional needs of the body in order to survive and function, we can broadly divide or define the diet into macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein and fat), and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals).

The three macronutrients all have their own specific roles and functions in the body, and all supply us with calories or energy. For this reason, the body requires these nutrients in relatively large amounts to grow, develop and continually thrive. Remember, macro means large!

Micronutrients on the other hand, whilst equally crucial, are required in much smaller quantities (micro = small) to ensure normal metabolism, growth and physical and mental wellbeing. Of course we also need water to survive, which serves as a carrier, distributing nutrients to the body’s cells, and removing toxins and waste products for elimination.

So, to get us started let’s take a look at macronutrients!

Where do we source macronutrients on a plant-based diet?

All foods can be broadly categorised into a protein, a carbohydrate, or a fat-based food, although hardly ever, will a food be 100% one macronutrient, especially in a varied and fresh plant-based diet.

Let’s take the example of an avocado – comprised of about 20% carbohydrate, 5% protein and 75% fat. Bananas on the other hand are 95% carbohydrate, with a smattering of protein and fat. Nuts, such as almonds, are rather like avocados, being comprised of about 70% fat, 15% protein, and 15% carbohydrate.

Nutrition doesn’t always have to be complex or highly scientific. We can easily build a healthy plant-based diet by understanding major macronutrient foods.

Macronutrients ahoy!

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the main energy source for the body. They are made up of chains of small units of sugar that the digestive system can break down relatively easily, and ultimately digest as glucose.

Glucose is essential for the body. It’s the preferred and quickest source of energy for the body’s cells, as well as for the brain. For this reason, your diet ideally needs to contain 45-65% carbohydrates.

Most diets should be built “upwards” from a solid foundation of carbohydrate rich foods. This is easy on a plant-based diet, as carbohydrates are found in the vast majority of natural plant foods. By far the healthiest choices are fresh fruits, vegetables, beans, pulses, legumes, and whole grains. These foods contain plenty of energy, along with fibre and nutrients.

Any well-constructed and considered plant-based diet is high in fibre – a vital component of plant foods. Fibre is the gut’s brush and sweeper, a bulking agent and overall body cleanser! Although fibre cannot be digested by the body, it plays a crucial role in the intestines, expelling waste, providing food for healthy gut bacteria, and helping to maintain healthy cholesterol levels.

Good carbs to go for:

  • Bananas
  • Apples
  • Mango
  • Papaya
  • Melon
  • Cauliflower
  • Squash and zucchini
  • Carrots
  • Quinoa
  • Wholegrain rice
  • Wild rice
  • Oats
  • Millet

The skinny on fats

Despite what you may have heard, fat is an integral part of a healthy diet. It is essential for brain development and function, cellular production, cell regeneration and overall cell functioning.

Another major function of fat in the body is protection, and insulation. Fat helps keep us warm in the winter, and maintain a comfortable body temperature. It is also vital for cushioning and to protect the body’s organs.

Lastly, fat plays a vital role in the absorption of certain fat-soluble vitamins (i.e. vitamins A, D, E, and K) as well as carotenoids found in colourful plant-based foods such as kale, avocado, carrots, watercress and bell peppers.

A healthy diet generally consists of around 15-20% fat, and if you want healthy fat (which of course is the primary aim) the sorts of foods that are naturally fat-rich, taste delicious and are highly versatile are listed below.

Some healthy fat-rich foods are avocado (used in many meals), coconut and coconut oil (for light frying) hempseeds (in salads and smoothies), hemp oil (for salad dressings), almonds, pumpkin seeds, olives (as snacks and in salads), and chia seeds (as a breakfast porridge).

Good fats in your foods

  • Avocado (this top food not only has a good balance of carbs, fat and protein, it also contains a wide range of vitamins, minerals, & phytonutrients such as carotenoids and phytosterols)
  • Almonds
  • Walnuts
  • Pumpkin seeds
  • Chia seeds
  • Coconut flesh and oil
  • Olives
  • Seed oils

Proteins

Proteins play exclusive and vital roles in the body such as building, and repairing/regenerating body tissues and cells. Undeniably, it is particularly important for physically active individuals whose muscle tissue is constantly being broken down, and in need of repair. Protein has other roles that include the manufacturing of hormones, as well as enzymes used in digestion. Protein is also vital to the healthy functioning of the immune system.

Proteins-based foods are made up of amino acids. Amino acids are linked together in differing levels of complexity, and formation. All in all there are 20 different amino acids, nine of which are considered essential, meaning the body can’t manufacture these naturally. They therefore have to be consumed.

Proteins that contain all 20 amino acids are often called complete proteins, and on a plant-based diet, we need to look to foods such as quinoa, avocado, chia seeds, and hemp seeds for complete protein nourishment.

Protein can make up anywhere from 15-30% of a healthy plant-based diet.

Proteins to partake in

  • Beans, pulses and legumes (even better if sprouted!)
  • Seeds (especially hemp seeds, chia seeds and flax seeds)
  • Nuts (almonds, walnuts, pecans, cashews)
  • Raw greens (kale, spinach)
  • Beetroot
  • Avocado
  • Quinoa

Putting it all together…

Whether you prefer three meals a day, or five smaller meals or snacks, you can’t go wrong by simply dividing a meal into three parts, including a main carbohydrate, a main protein and a naturally fat-rich food. Here are some workable, and practical examples:

  • Avocado, quinoa and puy lentil salad
  • Chia & almond milk porridge with banana, coconut shavings, mango and pumpkin seeds
  • Wild rice and pea salad
  • Tofu stir-fry with wholegrain rice
  • Spaghetti squash with tomato, olive and basil sauce

If you want to learn more about nutrition, vitamins and minerals, why not read our “What are Micronutrients?” blog post?

DISCOVER MORE

Why is Protein Important for Exercise?

Protein is a macronutrient. To put it simply, protein is one of the main nutrients that every person needs to maintain a healthy body. It helps to repair any internal or external damage, supports the immune system and contributes to an overall feeling of wellbeing.

What are Micronutrients?

While macronutrients supply us with the necessary calories (energy) to move and function on a daily basis, micronutrients are the “spark plugs” that literally turn on the ignition, helping the body to effectively and efficiently utilise calories, and driving the many biochemical reactions that occur in our cells.

Slow Energy Release Foods

We’ve all been there – that low grumble that happens between meal times that makes us realise that we could do with a snack. Depending on what we have nearest to us, there’s always the risk of grabbing a pastry, packet of crisps or chocolate which are often unhealthy options. Instead, you can prevent those snack attacks by eating foods that keep you fuller for longer!